by Federica Clement and Thomas Calderoni – Associate Veterinarian clinic San Luca


The first swallow was telling me last night:

And 'next Spring!
Laugh le primule nel Prato, yellow,
and I saw, believe me, already three butterflies.
Caressing her so I told her:
Yes it is time, rondine, flies on the roof!
(Gianni Rodari)

Welcome spring!! And with its arrival begin the first outings, the first long walks, really begins the pleasure to indulge in a little 'more time outdoors ... obviously always in the company of our inseparable four-legged friends!! Among the main problems this habit, We should be remembered, the so-called ectoparasitoses, ie infestations skin parasites and diseases related to them.

In spring and in general, with rising temperatures, nature awakens. Così avviene anche perfleas, ticks, mosquitoes and altri parassiti che in primavera costituiscono un vero problema e tormento per i nostri cani e gatti. In addition to creating nuisance, possonocause infections or diseases transmit to them.

Primavera Cani Gatti

Le fleas sono degli insetti che appartengono al genere Ctenocephalydes spp, and the most widespread species, nel gatto e nel cane domestico è Ctenocephalydes felis. Queste possono ritrovarsi sul corpo dei nostri animali e nel nostro ambiente domestico anche in inverno, butthe infestation increases in late spring and early autumn,  quando le condizioni ambientali favoriscono lo sviluppo delle larve. Una volta sull’ospite tendono pertanto adrun the "blood meal" on our animal (They are therefore said bloodsucking insects) It's inside 24-48 hours after the first intake of blood, females begin to lay eggs. The word "flea" already raises in itself an unpleasant feeling itchy and, even if the problem is in most cases only limited to dogs and cats, They are not rare in the interest also of man. Exactly for this reason, it is critical to keep the problem under control, checking occasionally the possible presence of these insects on the body of dogs and cats, intervening as soon as possible in high-risk situations and implementing, when it is indicated, a regular prevention in this sense.

A very important aspect, invece, is the so-called flea allergy dermatitis, determined by an allergenic substance contained in the insect saliva: is sufficient in this case even one parasite to unleash massive skin reactions, which tend to deteriorate rapidly, amplified by traumatise (scratching, licking, mordicchiamento) suscitati dal prurito. Prevention is better than cure!!

In addition to fleas, un altro serio pericolo è rappresentato dalleticks.  Rhipicephalus sanguineus, commonly called ticks, They are of great ectoparasites few millimeters in juvenile stages and more than one centimeter in the adult form. The greatest risk detect through during our picnic, giri al parco o gite fuori porta è legato al fatto che il loro ambiente di vita è rappresentato da erba alta e cespugli.Even these insects, like fleas, They feed on the blood of our friends, e al loro passaggio non perdono occasione di “attaccarsi” e nutrirsi mediante un morso totalmente indolore. Ticks feed on the host's blood, on which they attach themselves thanks to the presence of a sort of beak mug: once identified his victim, climb or they drop on it and introduce the head in his body, sucking the blood and breathing through particular canalicular structures that open outwards. The consequences can be deadly:  anemia, cutaneee wounds and lesions at risk of secondary infections,  trasmissione, as a result of biting, of infectious diseases of a certain severity, as for example piroplasmosis, l'ehrlichiosi, Lyme disease and emobartonellosi.

A separate concern the vector-borne diseases : la Filariosi Cardiopolmonare e la Leishmaniosi.

Both diseases are devious, hardly on the animal we find the presence of parasites, e , because the transmission occurs through invisible enemies (Mosquitoes and sandflies), the diagnosis can be made only with appropriate investigations by veterinary surgeon.

 La filariosi is a disease transmitted by mosquitoes and in particular, according to recent studies, is the tiger mosquito mainly responsible for the spread of the disease. Depending on conveyed parasite, filariasis can submit a form cardiopulmonary (caused by heartworm) or skin (causato daDirofilaria repens). Le larve del parassitaDirofilaria immitis entrano nel sistema circolatorio e, once you become adult worms (also long 15 cm), They settled near the heart and lungs, causing cardiac and respiratory disorders. They grow and spread massively so that, if the disease is not diagnosed and treated in time, It can lead to the death of our pet. I vermi adulti delle larve diDirofilaria Repens, invece, They are to be located in the subcutaneous, procuring damage significantly lower. The heartworm can occur even months later than the time of infection, it is therefore important to periodically perform a control test at the vet to check that our four-legged friend is really good.

La leishmaniosi è una malattia infettiva e contagiosa causata dal parassitaLeishmania Infantum,  trasmesso dalla puntura di piccoli insetti, i flebotomi (sandfly).  L’attività di questo vettore si realizza nelle ore crepuscolari e notturne con picco dopo il tramonto e quando le temperature sono tra i 15 e i 20° C. During the day, invece, It remains protected and safe refuge in obscure places like homes, cantine, cracks in the walls, of rocks and soil or even holes of trees. During the hours of its activity, This runs the blood meal on the host, consentendo cosi ilcontinuation of the biological cycle of the parasite that has inoculated . Leishmaniasis is a zoonosis, ovvero può colpire anche l’essere umano. Direct transmission from dog to man is not possible because, also in this case, il vettore necessario è sempre il flebotomo. Infatti, i cani fungono solo da ospite “serbatoio” diLeishmania infantum.

In light of the above it is important to remember a basic rule:prevention It is the most important weapon we have at our disposal, so do not be taken by surprise by the good weather, ask your vet a targeted protection plan and customized for your four-legged friend!!

"The information contained in this section are exclusively of informative nature,it, generale e non devono in alcun modo essere sostituzione del parere medico del vostro veterinario di fiducia”



Leave a Reply